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BASIC ELECTRON THEORY OF MATTER AND MAGNETISM

asif khan


BASIC ELECTRON THEORY OF MATTER AND MAGNETISM


ELECTRICITY IS THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS THROUGH A CONDUCTOR. ELECTRONS ARE ATTRACTED TO PROTONS. SINCE WE HAVE EXCESS ELECTRONS ON THE OTHER END OF THE CONDUCTOR, WE HAVE MANY ELECTRONS BEING ATTRACTED TO THE PROTONS. THIS ATTRACTION SORT OF PUSHES THE ELECTRONS TOWARD THE PROTONS. THIS PUSH IS NORMALLY CALLED ELECTRICAL PRESSURE. THE AMOUNT OF ELECTRICAL PRESSURE IS DETERMINED BY THE NUMBER OF ELECTRONS THAT ARE ATTRACTED TO PROTONS.
THE ELECTRICAL PRESSURE OR ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (EMF) ATTEMPTS TO PUSH AN ELECTRON OUT OF ITS ORBIT AND TOWARD THE EXCESS PROTONS. IF AN ELECTRON IS FREED FROM ITS ORBIT, THE ATOM ACQUIRES A POSITIVE CHARGE BECAUSE IT NOW HAS ONE MORE PROTON THAN IT HAS ELECTRONS. THE UNBALANCED ATOM OR ION ATTEMPTS TO RETURN TO ITS BALANCED STATE SO IT WILL ATTRACT ELECTRONS FROM THE ORBIT OF OTHER BALANCED ATOMS. THIS STARTS A CHAIN REACTION AS ONE ATOM CAPTURES AN ELECTRON AND ANOTHER RELEASES AN ELECTRON. AS THIS ACTION CONTINUES TO OCCUR, ELECTRONS WILL FLOW THROUGH THE CONDUCTOR. A STREAM OF FREE ELECTRONS FORMS AND AN ELECTRICAL CURRENT IS STARTED.
THIS DOES NOT MEAN A SINGLE ELECTRON TRAVELS THE LENGTH OF THE INSULATOR, IT MEANS THE OVERALL EFFECT IS ELECTRONS MOVING IN ONE DIRECTION. ALL THIS HAPPENS AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT. THE STRENGTH OF THE ELECTRON FLOW IS DEPENDENT ON THE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE OR VOLTAGE.
THE THREE ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICITY ARE VOLTAGE, CURRENT, AND RESISTANCE. HOW THESE THREE ELEMENTS INTERRELATE GOVERNS THE BEHAVIOR OF ELECTRICITY. ONCE THE YOU COMPREHEND THE LAWS THAT GOVERN ELECTRICITY, UNDERSTANDING THE FUNCTION AND OPERATION OF THE VARIOUS AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS IS AN EASIER TASK.
SO FAR WE HAVE DESCRIBED CURRENT AS THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS THROUGH A CONDUCTOR. ELECTRONS ARE NEGATIVELY CHARGED PARTICLES THAT MOVE TOWARD SOMETHING THAT IS POSITIVELY CHARGED. ELECTRONS MOVE BECAUSE OF THIS POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. THIS DESCRIBES ONE OF THE COMMON THEORIES ABOUT CURRENT FLOW. THE ELECTRON THEORY STATES THAT SINCE ELECTRONS ARE NEGATIVELY CHARGED, CURRENT FLOWS FROM THE MOST NEGATIVE TO THE MOST POSITIVE POINT WITHIN AN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT. IN OTHER WORDS, CURRENT FLOWS FROM NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE. THIS THEORY IS WIDELY ACCEPTED BY THE ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY.
ANOTHER CURRENT FLOW THEORY IS CALLED THE CONVENTIONAL THEORY. THIS STATES THAT CURRENT FLOWS FROM POSITIVE TO NEGATIVE. THE BASIC IDEA BEHIND THIS THEORY IS SIMPLY THAT ALTHOUGH ELECTRONS MOVE TOWARD THE PROTONS, THE ENERGY OR FORCE THAT IS RELEASED AS THE ELECTRONS MOVE BEGINS AT THE POINT WHERE THE FIRST ELECTRON MOVED TO THE MOST POSITIVE CHARGE. AS ELECTRONS CONTINUE TO MOVE IN ONE DIRECTION, THE RELEASED ENERGY MOVES IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION. THIS THEORY IS THE OLDEST THEORY AND SERVES AS THE BASIS FOR MOST ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS.
TRYING TO MAKE SENSE OF IT ALL MAY BE DIFFICULT FOR YOU. IT IS ALSO DIFFICULT FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS. IN FACT, ANOTHER THEORY HAS BEEN DEVELOPED TO EXPLAIN THE MYSTERIES OF CURRENT FLOW. THIS THEORY IS CALLED THE HOLE-FLOW THEORY AND IS ACTUALLY BASED ON BOTH ELECTRON THEORY AND THE CONVENTIONAL THEORY.
FORTUNATELY, IT REALLY DOESN'T MATTER AS LONG AS YOU KNOW WHAT CURRENT FLOW IS AND WHAT AFFECTS IT. FROM THIS UNDERSTANDING YOU WILL BE ABLE TO FIGURE OUT HOW THE CIRCUIT BASICALLY WORKS, HOW TO TEST IT. AND HOW TO REPAIR IT. REMEMBER THAT CURRENT FLOW IS THE RESULT OF THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS, REGARDLESS OF THE THEORY.
MODIFIED ELECTRON THEORY OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY HAS ALREADY BEEN SUGGESTED BY THE AUTHOR. IT IS ASSUMED THAT THE NUMBER OF FREE ELECTRONS IS RELATIVELY SMALL; THAT THEIR MEAN FREE PATH IS MANY TIMES THE ATOMIC DIAMETER AND DEPENDS ON THE AMPLITUDE OF ATOMIC VIBRATION; AND THAT THE NATURAL VELOCITY OF THE ELECTRONS HAS THE EQUIPARTITION VALUE. IT IS HERE DISCUSSED IN THE LIGHT OF THE ABOVE NEW EXPERIMENTAL DATA. THE DEVIATIONS FROM OHM'S LAW SUPPORT THE THEORY SINCE THEY REQUIRE LONG MEAN FREE PATHS. FOR NORMAL ATOMS FOR WHICH THE RESISTANCE DECREASES WITH INCREASING PRESSURE, THE ELECTRONS MUST PASS DIRECTLY FROM ATOM TO ATOM THROUGH INTERVENING ATOMS; BUT FOR THE ABNORMAL ATOMS LI, CA AND SB, WITH BOTH PRESSURE AND TENSION COEFFICIENTS POSITIVE, THE ELECTRONS SEEM TO PASS IN CHANNELS BETWEEN THE ATOMS, SOMEWHAT AS IN WAIN'S THEORY. DIAGRAMS ARE GIVEN SHOWING THE RELATION OF THE CHANNELS TO THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE. THIS SIMPLE CONCEPTION ENABLES THE VARIOUS COEFFICIENTS OF RESISTANCE TO BE CONNECTED QUANTITATIVELY. THE TENSION AND TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS ARE CALCULATED IN TERMS OF THE PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS AND THE ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND ARE FOUND TO AGREE APPROXIMATELY WITH THE OBSERVED VALUES.FROM BOUND ELECTRONS IN THAT THEY CAN BE MOVED READILY FROM THEIR ORBIT.IF A POINT THAT HAS AN EXCESS OF ELECTRONS (NEGATIVE) IS CONNECTED TO A POINT THAT HAS A SHORTAGE OF ELECTRONS (POSITIVE), A FLOW OF ELECTRONS (ELECTRICAL CURRENT) WILL FLOW THROUGH THE CONNECTOR (CONDUCTOR) UNTIL AN EQUAL ELECTRIC CHARGE EXISTS BETWEEN THE TWO POINTS. C. ELECTRON THEORY OF ELECTRICITY.  A CHARGE OF ELECTRICITY IS FORMED WHEN NUMEROUS ELECTRONS BREAK FREE OF THEIR ATOMS AND GATHER IN ONE AREA. WHEN THE ELECTRONS BEGIN TO MOVE IN ONE DIRECTION (AS ALONG A WIRE, FOR EXAMPLE), THE EFFECT IS A FLOW OF ELECTRICITY, AN ELECTRIC CURRENT. ACTUALLY, ELECTRIC GENERATOR  AND BATTERIES COULD BE CALLED ELECTRON PUMPS, BECAUSE THEY REMOVE ELECTRONS FROM ONE PART OF AN ELECTRIC CIRCUIT. FOR EXAMPLE, A GENERATOR TAKES ELECTRONS AWAY FROM THE POSITIVE TERMINAL AND CONCENTRATES PRESSURE COEFFICIENT OF THE WIEDEMANN-FRANZ RATIO HAS BEEN FOUND TO BE NEGATIVE FOR NINE OUT OF THE ELEVEN METALS TESTED; THAT IS, THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY INCREASES WITH PRESSURE LESS RAPIDLY THAN THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY. DETAILS WILL BE REPORTED ELSEWHERE.
ELASTIC WAVE THEORY OF THE ATOMIC PART OF THERMAL CONDUCTION IN METALS.THE ABOVE RESULT FOR THE PRESSURE COEFFICIENT MEANS THAT AN IMPORTANT PART, PROBABLY AT LEAST ONE THIRD, OF THE THERMAL CONDUCTION IN THESE METALS IS PERFORMED BY ATOMS, A CONCLUSION CONFIRMED BY A COMPARISON OF LORENTZ'S THEORETICAL VALUE OF THE WIEDEMANN-FRANZ RATIO WITH THE EXPERIMENTAL VALUE. AS A CRUDE PICTURE OF THE ATOMIC CONDUCTION, IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE ATOMS ARE ARRANGED IN COHERENT STRINGS SEPARATED FROM EACH OTHER BY GAPS WHICH EACH SHIFT IN POSITION BY THE DIAMETER OF AN ATOM EACH TIME THE STRING ON EITHER SIDE IS HIT, JUST LIKE GAPS BETWEEN STRINGS OF BILLIARD BALLS. THERMAL ENERGY IS TRANSFERRED WHEN THE GAP SHIFTS. BY CALCULATION, THE MAXIMUM RATE OF PROPAGATION OF A GAP COMES OUT ABOUT HALF THE SPEED OF SOUND IN THE METAL, MUCH LESS THAN THE ELECTRONIC VELOCITY. THE THEORY OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION ALREADY PRESENTED SUGGESTS THAT THE LENGTH OF THE COHERENT STRINGS OF ATOMS IS THE SAME AS THE FREE PATH OF THE ELECTRONS, THUS MAKING POSSIBLE A CONNECTION BETWEEN THE ELECTRONIC AND ATOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY. IF THE NUMBER OF ATOMS IS OF THE ORDER OF 20 TIMES THE NUMBER OF FREE ELECTRONS, AS IS TO BE EXPECTED FROM THE ABOVE THEORY OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, THEN ATOMIC CONDUCTIVITY COMES OUT OF THE PROPER ORDER OF MAGNITUDE. A DISCUSSION OF THE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS OF THE ATOMIC CONDUCTIVITY ADDS FURTHER EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF THE PROBABILITY OF THIS THEORY. COMPARISON WITH OTHER THEORIES. IT IS SIMILAR TO DEBYE'S CONCEPTS OF THERMAL CONDUCTION IN A CRYSTAL, BUT DIFFERS FROM HALL'S IONIZATION THEORY WHICH, IT IS CONCLUDED, PROBABLY CAN ACCOUNT FOR ONLY A SMALL PART OF THE CONDUCTION.



BASIC ELECTRON THEORY OF MATTER AND MAGNETISM BASIC ELECTRON THEORY OF MATTER AND MAGNETISM Reviewed by asifnews on May 17, 2020 Rating: 5

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